NCBI Bookshelf. A large number of epidemiologic studies have investigated the association between diet and mortality and morbidity. Of particular recent interest is the Mediterranean diet, first described by Ancel Keys over 50 years ago. This diet is characterized by high intake of olive oil, fruits and vegetables, whole grains and cereals, legumes, fish, and nuts; low intake of red meat, dairy products, and sweets; and moderate intake of red wine with meals. These trials included populations from a variety of geographical locations and with a spectrum of demographic and clinical characteristics. Although several systematic reviews of the relevant observational studies and clinical trials have been published, the VA’s Evidence-based Synthesis Program, in conjunction with the Office of Quality and Performance and in response to a request from the VA’s National Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention and Primary Care Services, commissioned the present study to update prior reviews and to specifically assess the implications for the treatment and prevention of common chronic conditions in the Veteran population. Key Question 1: Is the Mediterranean diet more effective than other diets in preventing death or the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hypertension, cognitive impairment, or kidney disease? Key Question 2: Compared to other diets, is the Mediterranean diet associated with fewer adverse outcomes including death or less disease progression in people who already have diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hypertension, cognitive impairment, rheumatoid arthritis, or kidney disease? Key Question 3: What is the observed adherence to the Mediterranean diet in studies conducted in the United States or Canada? We included studies whose diets met the criteria used in a recent Cochrane Review, that is to say, labelled a Mediterranean diet or meeting 2 or more of the following components: 1. All included studies met this minimum definition.
But it can be done by using frozen vegetables and beans, says Dr. Kidney Dis. Three covariate structures were used in the Cox regression analyses. Participants who did not develop diabetes were censored for death, loss to follow-up, or administratively censored on 31 December
Eating a Mediterranean-type diet won’t suddenly and dramatically improve your cholesterol, magically slash your blood pressure, or help you drop 20 pounds overnight. This overall improvement may be due to the cumulative effect of numerous small positive changes that occur in the body as a result of the diet — most notably, a drop in chronic inflammation, a known risk factor for heart disease. Samia Mora, an associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and one of the study’s authors. The Mediterranean-type diet is based on an eating pattern historically followed in countries around the Mediterranean, such as Spain, Greece, and Southern Italy — although many people in these regions have now strayed from this dietary pattern. Mediterranean-style meals are built on a foundation of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. Animal protein is used more sparingly than in a traditional Western-style diet and most often consists of lean meats and fish — and only small amounts of red meat. The diet also includes moderate amounts of cheese and yogurt. To switch to a Mediterranean-style diet, make small changes to your daily meals over time. Simple strategies include. The Mediterranean-type diet may be more challenging for people who live in a food desert, an area where it’s difficult to find fresh fruits or vegetables. But it can be done by using frozen vegetables and beans, says Dr. Samia Mora, an associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School.
Energy calculations from food frequency questionnaires tend to be unreliable and there was no objective measure of energy intake such as doubly labeled water used in the ARIC study to validate the energy intake reported in Table 2. Please fill out the application form and send it to Ms. In addition, the following areas represent important avenues for future research. Extra-virgin olive oil is believed to prevent a type of irregular heartbeat known as an arrhythmia, and it’s also thought to reduce breast cancer risk. Disclaimer: As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Martinez-Gonzalez, M. Participants will examine possible diet. Diabetes Care 32, — Three trials were conducted in patients with cardiovascular disease. Mora; instead, view it as a lifestyle change.